The Future of AAC and XR

A boy wearing an Augmented Reality headset.
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If you have no idea what the term AAC means, you aren’t alone. AAC is not in the mainstream consciousness of most people even though it should be. AAC stands for Augmentative and Alternative Communication. This means people use ways other than speech to communicate.

AAC has been around for centuries in one form or another, like gestures and sign language, but modern AAC has developed over the past one hundred years or so. AAC as a physical device came about around one hundred years when the first communication board was created. Over the subsequent decades, different methods were developed to allow people to communicate either with assistance (aided) or on their own (unaided). The electronic AAC device evolved starting in the 1960s and in the past ten years has really come into its own.

The Current State of AAC

An iPad in a red case running the AAC program Proloquo2Go
The AAC program Proloquo2Go on an iPad.

There are dozens if not hundreds of options for AAC these days. You can use the traditional AAC style boards or go with a myriad of electronic or computer-based programs. In fact, you can run AAC right on your iPhone or iPad. With the advent of the internet, communicating in different ways has become easier but still not ideal for everyone.

Challenges with AAC have been multi-faceted: supporting sufficient vocabulary, effective access with or without support, physical adaptations, learning curves, and social and cultural acceptance.

AAC of the Now and Future

One of the challenges of AAC for many is the fact that you need to carry a board or a tablet or computing device and touch it, use electronic switches, or eye tracking from a distance. This works well but can be problematic for some people or in some situations. Say you are walking and carrying things but need to speak using your iPad. Or you have a motor disability and require a wheelchair and using a tablet with keyguard, but access can be slow and frustrating.

There is a new wave of computing that is using BCI—brain computer interface—to give more people access to computer control to speed up and enhance communication. AAC is taking advantage of this in creative ways.

A boy and his mother trying on the Cognixion One AAC headset. A man is adjusting the headset on the boy's head.
My son and wife trying the Cognixion One AAC headset.

One up-and-coming company is Cognixion. They have created an augmented reality (AR) headset that includes BCI via EEG (electroencephalography) sensors. The Cognixion One uses custom EEG sensors along with an AR visor to display the AAC application to the user hands-free.

AR projects 2D or 3D imagery in front of the eyes as a heads up display so the user can see both the information and their surroundings at the same time.

EEG uses electrodes on the outside of the head to sense electrical brain activity. These have traditionally been used for neurological evaluations in the medical field. Over the past few decades, researchers have studied the use of EEG to control computers—brain computer interface. This turns the brain into a switch of sorts, giving the ability to control a computing device without a keyboard or mouse. Once the brain is trained, it can work like a hands-free keyboard and mouse.

This focuses on two of the challenges of traditional AAC: carrying an device and physical access. They are also rethinking the user experience of AAC in the headset.

My son and wife got to try the Cognixion One. My son, who has cerebral palsy, communicates with minimal speech and relies on sign language, gestures, and an iPad with the program Proloquo2Go. Using something like the Cognixion One could open up more options for him to connect with others.

Imagine the Possibilities

This raises the question I’ve been asking myself for a while: how do people with disabilities engage in XR (extended reality—augmented and virtual reality) and the newfangled metaverse? While many of the common AAC methods could work in AR, not many or really any have been adapted to the medium. This needs to happen and needs to happen now.


What if everyone was able to communicate with each other seamlessly? That is no longer a pipe dream. We have the technology. We have the willingness. We even have some of the social and cultural support. We just need it all to come together. I feel this will happen in the coming years and decades, if not sooner.

Also See

The Future of Work

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Two weeks ago, we had a lot of news from big names such as Meta, Microsoft, and Accenture about The Future of Work. What does this mean? Why should we care? Is this for real or just a pipe dream? How can I try it?

I will admit that I was a little surprised seeing Microsoft’s Satya Nadella present alongside Mark Zuckerberg during Meta’s Connect keynote. Are they not competitors? No, not necessarily. In fact, they may need each other right now.

A man wearing a pair of Magic Leap 2 augmented reality glasses with a reflection of a soccer game on the lenses.
Are you ready for the future?

Virtual reality (VR)—and now augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and the all-encompassing extended reality (XR)—has traditionally been sold as a consumer and gaming platform to the general public. Back in 2016, Oculus and HTC took the world by storm with their Rift and Vive platforms, game stores, and lots of hype.

The reality has been, as with many technologies, making money has been tough. Companies realize that to make a substantial profit and solidify their place in the market, a switch to business users is necessary.

Microsoft came out with its groundbreaking HoloLens back in 2016. It was revolutionary at the time—no AR device like this had been commercialized before. Yet this revolutionary platform has had a tougher time breaking into the mainstream. Microsoft first tried to make it a consumer device and quickly switched to business and enterprise. Magic Leap also tried going after the consumer market when it finally released its Magic Leap One in 2018. Two years and barely any sales later, they also pivoted to enterprise. Just like Microsoft.

With the big news from Meta this week Microsoft’s own foray into “mixed reality” is taking another turn. Maybe building a futuristic headset that costs way more than a standard laptop is not going to work right now. And I really like the HoloLens. Alternatively, partnering with another company that can create a more affordable device might have better results in the short term. Long term tech can keep brewing in the background.

What does this mean?

A Beam telepresence robot carrying a Microsoft HoloLens 2 headset.
Maybe this is what we need.

The concept of The Future of Work has many meanings. We have moved from typewriters and phones to word processers and fax machines, then to Microsoft Word and the internet. We went from emailing documents to sharing them in Google Docs or SharePoint. Now we can co-edit documents from anywhere at any time and have hybrid meetings in Zoom and Microsoft Teams. Work is not just reserved for the office anymore.

The Future of Work is a continuation of this evolution. From the static web 1.0 to the interactive web 2.0, the next generation of the internet will include a 3D element that is even more interactive. We have seen it in multiplayer gaming for decades and even work platforms like Second Life. Now we are at a point where the hardware, processing, internet speeds, and needs have evolved enough to make a spatial web possible.

Many of us see the potential of 3D and spatial as part of that future. You can call this the metaverse, virtual worlds, or whatever. The interaction that is possible using 3D opens up more use cases that were not possible before. This will happen in VR and AR. In fact, the augmented future may be the bigger winner. The combination of VR for remote and AR for in person can really be powerful.

Why should we care?

This is a good question. For many of us, there is nothing to do right now. This may be months or years away from affecting you. However, if you want to be a part of learning and shaping and participating in the process of discovery, the time is now.

Using the metaverse or 3D worlds for work may not make any sense for use cases like standard meetings, presentations, or collaboration. However, more specific uses like brainstorming, product development and review, social, demonstrations, and content creation have more immediate utility. The kinds of things that are enhanced by in person meetings but for when in person is not possible.

You can even enhance in person meetings with 3D content. Microsoft showed some of this with the HoloLens. Meta’s Quest Pro shows promise to make that more available to a wider audience at lower cost and with more utility.

Is this for real or just a pipe dream?

Photo of a Samsung GearVR headset hanging on the wall.
Do you remember the Samsung GearVR? We are way past that now.

The technology exists right now for all of this to happen: Virtual worlds, cloud services, XR headsets, and people able to bring it all together. The barriers are expertise, costs, user experience needs, processing power, and mindset. Mindset may be most important: most of this is not ready for prime time. You must have an open mind and be able to accept failure. That does not mean the future is worthless. It just means try something else. Focus on the needs.

How can I try it?

Very easily. In fact, you do not even need a VR or AR headset. You can head over to Mozilla Hubs or Spatial and jump into a virtual world in your web browser within minutes. Or check out VRchat or AltSpaceVR for more of a social experience. These communities are exploring the future for us. You can also be a part of that future.


On its surface, the Meta keynote may not have been exciting to the general public and those deep into VR gaming. Yet it signals a shift in the industry. Gaming and social may have built up the industry and shown us what is possible, but business will fund the industry to the next level. This is not bad, it is not wrong, and is not atypical. Technology starts on the consumer side and once it has matured will transfer over to the workplace. I welcome our XR overlords.

VR Jones

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Playing some Sports Scramble

My kid gets it.

Virtual reality is fun. VR is useful. VR is immersive.

He loves jump into VR to play baseball or bowling in Sports Scramble. He really loves wandering around Wander to see a 360 street view of almost anywhere in the world and at different dates in the past. His favorite is Richie’s Plank Experience where he can not only ride an elevator all day but also call up the creepy drill guy and giant spider.

I think he gets the value of VR in its purest form. You can be anywhere, be anyone, and experience any time. He loves VR.

Wandering in Wander, somewhere along a highway.

Using XR to Get Away: Elevator Jones in the Era of Social Distancing

360 photo
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My son loves elevators. I call him Elevator Jones. Before COVID we’d go to the malls, office buildings, hotels, Metro, and anywhere else that elevators existed and take dozens of rides. We would record the outing with my phone, a video camera, or my trusty Samsung Gear 360.

We cannot go anywhere during this pandemic. He does not quite understand what this means, though he accepts it…to a point. He keeps asking when we can go back to visit the mall, ride the elevators at the office building, and stay at hotels again. I do not have an answer for him.

In my earlier post Escaping with Virtual Reality I wrote about using XR—Virtual Reality (VR) specifically—for social and entertainment. An extension of that is getting away. For my son that has a therapeutic effect.

If you have videos, use ‘em

We had taken quite a few videos before the pandemic happened, both regular style and 360-degree videos. He already loved reviewing those videos at home on his iPad and in our Oculus Quest VR headset. Now they are critical.

Boy wearing a VR headset watching videos of elevators
Elevator Jones in an Oculus Quest

You may already have some photos and videos you’ve taken in the past. If you’re lucky you have some 360 videos too. Either way, you can pop them into your VR headset and immerse yourself in another world. A pre-COVID world.

He loves watching videos we took together of elevators, my office, and the amusement park. While he would prefer to go there in person, this is an effective stand in for the real thing. At least for now.

The Internet of Content

If you do not happen to have photos and videos you can use there is plenty to find on the internet, including videos of the 360-degree variety.

In fact, if you are an elevator buff like my son there are literally thousands if not millions of elevator videos on YouTube to enjoy. YouTubers such as Diesel Ducy, JimLiElevators, and Floridian Elevators have been posting videos for years. There are hundreds if not thousands more. They have massive followings online. It’s a beautiful community. I started the Elevator Jones channel on YouTube to add to the pile. Maybe one day I’ll be able to add more.

360-degree photo of the CNN Center in Atlanta
A 360-degree photo from our trip to Atlanta

My son also loves malls. There are videos from folks such as Dan Bell and Sal that document the rise and decline of malls. This is a topic that fascinates me too. I grew up in the mall era. I love watching videos of dying malls, abandoned malls, closed malls. Another great escape are videos of abandoned places by the likes of Mobile Instinct and Bright Sun Films.

Getting into the 360-degree and VR side of things, check out the YouTube VR site. NextVR also looks promising, but we may have to wait and see what Apple does with them. Check out AFS-USA Explore. Companies like Ascape are making VR videos for the travel industry and many of these are on YouTube VR.

Give it a try

Just because you are stuck at home and not able to go to your favorite destinations does not mean you cannot visit those places. Pull out the photos and videos you took. Put them on your VR headset. Find some new content online. Try out a new VR travel app.

The world is still out there. You just need to look.

Old School Tech: Intellivision

Intellivision console with SNAFU loaded
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The Mattel Electronics “Intelligent Television” console, or Intellivision, debuted in 1979 amid a market of heavy hitters like Atari but well before Nintendo hit the scene. My family bought one around 1981 or 1982. None of us can remember the exact date. I do remember playing hours and hours of Intellivision down in my parents’ basement in the 1980s.

Our refreshed Intellivision

We also got a Tomy Tutor around this time, which was a much lesser known competitor to the Commodore 64 with its keyboard and cassette tape recorder. At one point we attempted a purchase of a ColecoVision but my dad ended up returning it for some reason. A little bit of trivia: Coleco was the “Connecticut Leather Company” but ended up making handheld games, Pong units (Coleco Telstar, which I still have), and ColecoVision.

The ColecoVision and Tomy Tutor are long gone, but my dad dug up the Intellivision in my parents’ basement recently so I had to get it working again.

Video games used to be much simpler

Back in my day you were lucky to have a video game with more than a few colors and realistic sound. Video game arcades were picking up, and mechanical games like pinball were still around. The competition in the home market was Atari and Commodore. The home personal computers like the IBM PC and Apple II were out there too, but a lot more expensive.

The Intellivision came at the height of the first home video game market and before the big crash of 1983. It has a 16 color palette, a 16-bit processor, a good library of games, boasted a speech synthesizer module—Intellivoice—that added realistic sounds, and had George Plimpton as a spokesperson.

Competition changed it all

While we had the Intellivision console throughout the 1980s, the advent of the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1986 really changed the landscape of home gaming. We jumped on the bandwagon too, and I have the numerous Nintendo consoles to show for it.

I still played Intellivision, but years of abuse to the console had taken its toll on the electronics. I remember taking apart the controllers at the time trying to figure out why some buttons stopped working. Was it my heavy abuse that did them in?

The Intellivision controllers

At the time I thought the circuit matrix inserts that were the issue, so I wrote to INTV to ask for new ones. INTV was the spinoff of Mattel that produced a new Intellivision III in the later 1980s before going defunct in 1990. Unfortunately, the inserts they sent were for the Intellivision III and were similar but did not quite match. The Intellivision went into a box in my parents’ basement to be forgotten for a few decades.

The Intellivision is alive!

When my dad found the old Intellivision recently, I had to attempt a repair. I forgot about the incompatibility of circuit matrix inserts so I tinkered with them to no avail. I kept digging by taking the entire console apart, something that had probably not been done since it was manufactured in the early 1980s.

Inside of a Gen 1 Intellivision
Inside of a Gen 1 Intellivision taken apart

The inside of this thing was pristine, apart from some dust and crumbs. What I determine after some trial and error was this: the issue was never the circuit matrix inserts, it was the cable for controller 1.

SNAFU was one of my favorites

I quick switch of the cables—only requiring a few screws and a little elbow grease to pull them off the pins—and the Intellivision was working again. First game was aptly SNAFU.

What’s next?

Did you know there are still parts for the Intellivision out there? There is even a company in California that used to supply parts after INTV closed in the 1990s and they still have parts today. So, of course, I’m looking to make some repairs.

Why, do you ask, am I fixing a 40-year-old gaming console? My wife asks that question all the time. My friends ask that question all the time. Even I ask myself that sometimes.

20+ games in stock for our Intellivision

It is not because I need to play 40-year-old games. It’s not even that I need to show my kids what the 1980s look like. It is because it exists and I am a sucker for fixing things. I am also a sucker for history and remembering where we came from. So oddly for Intellivision, a footnote in the annals of video game history, you will be remembered.

I played some Frogger tonight

Escaping with Virtual Reality

Oculus Quest
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With the arrival of COVID-19 in the United States, we have hunkered down at home, the kids are out of school, and we are not going anywhere for a while. We hope this pandemic ends sooner than later. But at this point nothing is guaranteed. Do what you need to do to be safe, keep your family safe, and help quell this global threat to our health.

This unexpected turn of recent events has given me a little extra time to tinker with the tech toys around the house. Much to the chagrin of my wife, I collect a lot of stuff. I am also lucky to have access to various devices for my job. Typically, I do not always have (or make) enough time to test everything out as much as I’d like. The lack of commute and cabin fever this past week have changed things a bit.

While I work with XR (eXtended Reality) at work, in particular Augmented Reality (AR) and the Microsoft HoloLens 2, I have let my use of the consumer side of Virtual Reality (VR) lapse a bit. Now that I have extra time—and motivation—to tinker and get distracted, I am getting back to using some of the apps I’ve setup for work and the kids. This reminded me how much this technology can enable engagement and escape to aid psychological and physical well-being.

Virtual Reality can be a Great Escape

I fired up my Oculus Quest and attached it to a gaming laptop to test out the Oculus Link feature. Browsing around the apps in the library, I found Google Earth VR. What a great way to get out of the house without leaving the house. I’m hooked. Again.

These sorts of apps are great for escape: you can visit anywhere in the world, watch videos on YouTube of events and places back in time, and even participate in live events in virtual spaces like AltSpaceVR, Wave, and NextVR. You can even catch up with your friends to watch a movie in the Oculus Quest or have a social hour in one of the many meetup apps like Bigscreen.

You can also watch VR and 360 videos in YouTube or upload your own photos and videos to the VR headset. I have a Samsung Gear 360 camera to take videos and photos and upload them to the Oculus Quest. My son loves revisiting our adventures.

I got my wife to try out VR again and it impressed her

I have planned to write about virtual collaboration apps like Spatial, Doghead Rumii, HTC’s Engage, and Glue. That’s not what I am talking about here. I mean entertainment and socializing. Think travel, concerts, and meetups with friends. You do not need to go anywhere but can get some semblance of escape.

Then there is the whole game genre. That is what most people think of when they think of VR. We downplay that at work to talk about training, design, and collaboration because those uses are more appropriate in the professional setting. But we also talk about therapy and medical uses. You know what is therapeutic? Playing games. Connecting with people. Getting out of your head and out of your house and going somewhere else. VR can do all of this.

Virtual Reality is more available than ever…if you can get a headset

VR once was relegated to those in the know and those with the means. Nowadays, the Oculus Quest and Go make it amazingly simple to get yourself into VR. Even the newer HTC, Oculus, and Windows Mixed Reality headsets are easier to setup and use than the original HTC Vive and Oculus.

The only problem of late is supply and demand. The demand was high for headsets like the Oculus Quest for holidays 2019. When the coronavirus started, production that was already delayed was affected and devices went out of stock. They have come back periodically. For example, on Friday 3/13 had some in stock but they ran out quickly. You can currently find devices for a 50% premium on Amazon and eBay. Most people are out of luck though.

If you are lucky enough to have your own device, or have access to one to borrow, pull it out again to investigate what it can do for you.

Right now my go to recommendation is the Oculus Quest, if you can get one. They are $399 list for a 64GB model and $499 list for a 128GB model. Anything higher means stock is restricted so people are taking advantage. It may still be worth the cost if you want something sooner than later.

If you already have a gaming PC or laptop with a good graphics card, or want get one and have a higher budget, you should look at the Oculus Rift S and Windows Mixed Reality headsets like the Samsung Odyssey+ and HP Reverb. If you really want high quality graphics, the HTC Vive Pro Eye or Valve Index are for you, if you have the right graphics card.

Put me in VR, I’m ready to play

Besides the fact that there are plenty of other ways to play games, interact with people, and engage with content, why do we need VR?

Well, we don’t. But it is a worthwhile addition to the list. I am willing and ready to re-engage with VR as a consumer, not just as a professional. For the next four weeks or more my whole family will be home. This may keep us from driving each other crazy. Maybe we’ll learn something too.


I am not ignoring Augmented Reality. There are plenty of AR apps for your phone and tablet, including games and learning apps. Soon enough we’ll have AR headsets that will be even more engaging. Right now, though, VR is where the real engagement is at. Especially if you want to get away from the real world for a while.

Get some VR now


  • Most  = aka most popular headsets, the Oculus Quest, Oculus Rift, PC-VR
  • Most + more = Popular headsets plus others like the Oculus Go and/or Playstation VR
  • PC-VR generally includes the HTC Vive, Valve Index, and Windows Mixed Reality support

Travel apps

Social/event apps


The Microsoft HoloLens 2

HoloLens 2
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Almost exactly four years ago, the first HoloLens rolled off the assembly line and was delivered to its first customer. It was a revolution in wearable technology: not only was it a full computer that you wore on your head, it also had “mixed reality” holographic display, depth-sensing sensors that descended from the Xbox Kinect, and special gesture tracking so you could use your hands to control it.

At the time, the world of augmented reality consisted of phone and tablet-based camera pass-through apps and simple two-dimensional AR heads up displays like the Google Glass. Android’s ARcore and Apple’s ARkit had not been released yet for mobile devices, so the world of 3D holographic and spatial AR computing was almost exclusively in Microsoft’s hands.

The first-generation HoloLens was considered a “Developers Edition” at the time until Microsoft released an Enterprise edition by early 2017.

Mixed Reality is the future

I was lucky to use the original HoloLens during its first year in 2016. We got one for my company’s Innovation Center and we built a medical imaging app that we demonstrated to visitors. Over the next few years, more applications popped up in the Microsoft Store and through partners.

At first, it seemed there might be more of a consumer focus with the headset. Games like Roboraid were made to show off the gaming ability of the platform. Quickly though, the market turned towards enterprise.

I like using the HoloLens for collaboration apps like Spatial, Object Theory’s Prism, and Holo-One, which allow people to work together in 3D rooms both co-located in-person and remote. I also like working with companies such as Taqtile for maintenance and job aid applications like their Manifest platform.

Spatial in the HoloLens 2

I also like using the Windows Mail, Calendar, and Web browser applications to place an almost infinite desktop around my workspace and house.

As we look to the future, we are building applications for the HoloLens 2 that bring map and sensor data into spatial computing, bridge training from virtual reality to augmented reality, and move from phone based interfaces to head mounted displays.

HoloLens 1 was definitely version 1.0

The HoloLens 1 was a revolutionary device that came out in 2016. We had never seen anything like it before and it has affected product development across the entire XR industry.  

It was a great device.

Once devices got out, we gathered our ideas for how to improve the platform. These are not gripes with the first generation HoloLens, rather a set of ideas that were collected over the next three years as Microsoft designed HoloLens 2.

The limited field of view was the most noticeable. Technical limitations of these sort of holographic waveguide displays limited the horizontal field of view (FOV) to 30 degrees—whereas VR is typically over 100 degrees and ideal FOV for any headset is upwards of 200 degrees or more. No AR headset can reach 100 degrees right now, but we may see that change over the next few years.

Besides FOV, the form factor of the HoloLens 1 was also a concern. Fitting all the electronics and battery in the headset was quite a feat, but all that weight was placed over the face—and on the nose. A HoloLens 1 could be worn for maybe 30-60 minutes before it became quite uncomfortable. There were adjustments to the headwear that could improve this, but it did not eliminate the fact that there was a mass of weight on your forehead.

Lastly, while the hand gestures—what was call the “air tap” and “bloom”—were easy to learn, they were not as intuitive as we would like.

HoloLens 2 is a big incremental improvement

All of the comments about the HoloLens 1 were addressed in the HoloLens 2 and more.

  • Wider field of view: 52 degrees diagonal/43 degrees horizontal
  • Better fit and comfort: the electronics were split between the forehead and back of the head, balancing the weight and also enabling a more hat-like fit to the headset
  • Full hand gestures and hand tracking were added, so you can now grab and stretch holographic objects more naturally

In addition, new features were added:

  • Iris login for security
  • Eye tracking for control and analysis
  • USB-C power and accessory port
  • New Qualcomm Snapdragon 850 processing power, Holographic Processing Unit, and an AI coprocessor
Yep, it works in the car. Parked, of course.

Slow and steady wins the race

HoloLens 2 is more of an evolution than a revolution this time around. However, Microsoft is likely aiming for HoloLens 3 or 4 to be plain old glasses. Maybe that will not be until HoloLens 5. We are 5-10 years out for a truly revolutionary headset. Everything between now and then will be incremental improvements until we get smaller size, greater power, and more seamless and full-view optics.

In the meantime, the likes of Magic Leap, Facebook, or Apple would like to get there first. We will probably see consumer devices from some of these players with less features but more compact form factors. Microsoft is focusing on enterprise first, focusing on higher end features and support that is required for companies and the government. That should lead to consumer editions at some point.  

Yours truly enjoying some HoloLens 2

Is 2020 the Year of Augmented Reality?

Ike wearing a HoloLens 2
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Way back in early 2019 it was looking like 2020 would see a surge in augmented reality headsets and adoption across both the consumer and enterprise space. There were rumors of Apple announcing an AR headset in early 2020. Microsoft was releasing its long-awaited HoloLens 2 by the end of 2019. North Focals, nReal, Magic Leap, and others had devices out or coming soon. The excitement was strong.

The Reality of AR

Once the end of 2019 came around, we realized that we would instead be seeing important yet incremental progress in AR devices. Consumers will be getting more options like an updated North Focals, nReal Light, and the promise of AR contacts in a few years. Microsoft’s HoloLens 2 rolled out, albeit to production constraints. The Apple AR glasses ended up being a 2022-2023 thing instead of a 2020 thing. We just have to wait a little bit longer.

What happened?

The limitations on technology are a major factor. We want smaller, lighter glasses with a wide field of view (FOV), 3D optics, ease of use, and low cost. Right now, we can have one or maybe two of those features in a single headset. You could have small and relatively inexpensive North Focals. You can have the Varjo XR-1 with a wide field of view for $10,000. You can have the HoloLens or Magic Leap that are self-contained and easier to use, but lacking an ideal FOV.

The other issue is cost. Anything with true spatial 3D computing is upwards of $1000 or more. Headsets like the North Focals come in under $1000, but only offer 2D optics for notifications and do not include enhanced input methods. nReal Light consumer glasses are supposed to start at $500 and include 3D optics but are not available quite yet.

This year promises to bring down the cost of the entry level AR glasses, but we are not quite there yet.

What AR will we get in 2020?

For the most part, we may already know what AR is coming in 2020. Most of the AR devices are already here or already announced:

There are likely more devices in the works, but I do not expect to see major new production devices before 2021. Facebook/Oculus, Google, Apple, and others are likely working on their own new products. Microsoft and Magic Leap are working on their next generation headsets. Smaller companies like nReal and North Focals are progressing their tech as well. Right now, we have what we have. We may get announcements of new products this year, but I would be surprised if we get anything tangible to try before 2021.

For a comprehensive list of AR predictions for 2020, check out Tony SkarredGhost’s summary of AR.

When will AR really take off?

For enterprise, 2020 and 2021 will have a lot of adoption of AR. With fieldable headsets from the Microsoft, Vuzix, and Magic Leap, some enterprise and government agencies will be able to afford piloting and deploying these devices in greater numbers.

For consumers, we will likely need to wait until 2021, 2022, or 2023 for substantial adoption. North Focals and similar devices may see some uptick before then, but we may need a Facebook/Oculus, Google, or Apple to make a pair of AR glasses that are attractive to the mass market. I would love to see a smaller company come in and be competitive, but experience points to a large company with big pockets as the winner.

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Let’s Make XR Accessible

XR Access
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XR – eXtended Reality – has been around for decades. Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and Mixed Reality (MR) allow for much more three-dimensional and realistic interaction with computing systems. As with most technologies, they have not been designed for accessibility from the start. But can they be used to enable interaction with people of all abilities?

Why should XR be accessible?

The better question is: why shouldn’t XR be accessible? Accessibility is a human right. It is also the law in many countries, including the United States, with laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Telecommunications Act.

XR, including AR and VR, came out of varying needs for 2D and 3D spatial computing over the years. Simulation, training, operations, and maintenance are a few of the common uses of XR. Gaming is also a common use of VR in the consumer space, dating back to systems like Nintendo Virtual Boy in the 1990s and made more mainstream by the HTC Vive and Oculus Rift in the 2010s.

AR started with the Virtual Fixtures system for the US Air Force, and earlier “heads up displays” (HUDs) are also predecessors to the modern AR headset. AR has evolved into both 2D and 3D with HUDs such as Google Glass, Microsoft HoloLens, and Magic Leap One. Phones and tablets can also run AR using cameras to detect and overlay imagery over the world.

Evaluating this holistically, XR is a perfect fit for making the world more accessible to everyone. Uses such as communication, training, navigation, remote access, and content creation can provide enhanced and alternative ways for anyone to participate.

We also need to make sure XR experiences are accessible for everyone. VR games should be accessible. AR navigation apps should be accessible. MR remote 3D design platforms should be accessible. It should not be an afterthought.

The XR Access Symposium

In July 2019, I attended the XR Access Symposium in New York City. This group of about 100 people across academia, industry, and government got together at the Cornell Tech campus on Roosevelt Island for a day of presentations, demos, and breakout groups.

The room of about 100 people who attended the XR Access Symposium in July 2019

The plenary sessions got everyone thinking and the ten breakout groups allowed us to brainstorm the initial set of goals that the XR Access initiative would consider. There were demonstrations of current XR tech which was new to a lot of the audience. The mix of content, devices, and people enabled unique conversations that led to the next steps for XR Access.

How we make XR accessible

The goal for XR Access is to engage with the community, create guidelines, and influence policy for accessibility in XR. The focus is to support software, hardware, and content so that this technology is built from the ground up for all, not application by application.

To achieve this goal, we have organized the XR Access initiative into six working groups:

  • Guidelines & Policies
  • Awareness
  • Education
  • Hardware Devices
  • Content & Authoring

We have about 150 participants across the groups and an executive team of about a dozen leaders. I am the Lead for the Hardware Devices working group and excited to engage with our community partners on this effort. I am also looking forward to working across all the groups to meet the initiative’s goals.

There are some efforts in progress, including W3C’s XAUR and WebXR, along with Open XR and the XR Association that will feed into our work. We are not starting from scratch but acknowledge that a more coordinate and public effort needs to be made.

Our next symposium is slated for sometime this summer. Please visit and join a working group or attend a community gathering to get involved.

Accessible Gaming: The Xbox Adaptive Controller

Xbox Adaptive Controller and Logitech kit
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In September 2018, Microsoft released its Xbox Adaptive Controller to the world. This new controller provides alternative ways for gamers to interact with both the Xbox and Windows games. The controller has its own built in controls for some of the main buttons and inputs for up to 19 switches that use the 3.5mm standard and three USB ports.

Xbox Adaptive Controller and Logitech kit

Microsoft started development of the Xbox Adaptive Controller way back in 2015, and it took three years of iterations and collaboration to get to production. The company worked with gamers to develop and tweak the design, and it ended up being compatible with a wide array of switches, joysticks, and mounts and is massively customizable.

My son playing on the Xbox Adaptive Controller

Both of my boys love gaming. We got an Xbox One S last year and while my older son was quick to adapt to the new system, my younger son had challenges. He has cerebral palsy and had trouble using the standard Xbox controller for more complex games like NHL ’18. He loves hockey and really wants to play with his brother. So we got the Xbox Adaptive controller for Christmas along with the brand new Logitech Adaptive Gaming Kit.

The whole point of devices like this is to give people the choice of modifying input methods to fit their needs. You can use the base controller and a few 3.5mm switches, or a whole array of switches along with USB joysticks. There are switches for wheelchairs, hand mounts, foot controls, mouth controls, and more. You can remap the inputs any way you like. This is what true accessibility is about.

The Xbox Adaptive Controller gives my son the ability to interact with the games in his own way. The larger buttons of the Adaptive Controller are easier for him to push. The customizable switches allow us to space out additional button controls in a more accessible layout. The last step is to add some USB joysticks—this will allow complete control in NHL ’18, for example.

Microsoft is the only major game system maker that has done this in a comprehensive way, though adaptive controllers have been around in various forms for decades. My hope is that the success of Microsoft’s effort will trickle over to the other companies. I am looking at you Sony, Nintendo, and Apple.

One great effect of these new adaptive devices is their eventually adaptation (*ahem*) for other uses, including PC control and an area I am currently working in, XR Access: accessibility for virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality systems, aka eXtended Reality (XR).